NATIONAL SECURITY PRESIDENTIAL DIRECfiVEINSPD HOMELAND SECURITY PRESIDENTIAL DIRECTNE/HSPD Subject: Cybersecurity Policy . Security Presidential Directive (NSPD)/Homeland Security. Presidential Directive (HSPD) Regardles·s of whether the text is classi~ied. National Security Directive. NSPD. National Security Presidential Directive. CS&C . paper-on-cybersecuritypdf. directions of NSPD and HSPD
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Attack attribution is hard.
This is one of the hardest concepts to grasp with respect to threat intelligence and research and it is one that is hotly debated on a global basis within those communities and beyond. Many of those IP addresses, 10s of millions of the 10s of millions observed by Dyn, Flashpoint Partners, and Akamai, were tied to hosts infected by the Mirai botnet. Devices such as CCTV cameras and the more common digital video recorders sold to individuals or provided by cable providers were among those devices infected and noted as being active during this attack.
Preventing IoT Device Compromises Users at home should take the time to properly secure any new device introduced to their home networks. This is a huge problem but one that could be curtailed through properly localized network hardening e.
Whose job is it anyway? However, responsibility for the attack is not shouldered by end users alone. In fact, end users can only provide a last-ditch preventative measure against these attacks, and as mentioned above, there is only so much that the average end user can do to secure their devices. In Malta, auditing of code compliance, and actually terminated mem- terrorists checked a bag containing a bomb on Malta Air- bership for noncompliance.
Other chemical-infrastructure lines, which had minimal security procedures. The transferred piece of luggage was not rochemical and Refiners Association can also play key roles inspected at either Frankfurt or London, the assumption in in this regard. There may also be a role for governmental standards and The bomb was designed to explode above 28, feet, a regulations coupled with third-party inspections and insur- height normally first attained on this route over the Atlantic ance to enforce these measures.
More specifically, third-party Ocean. Thus, failures in a peripheral part of the airline net- inspections coupled with insurance protection can encourage work, Malta, compromised the security of a flight leaving decentralized units in the supply chain to reduce their risks from a core hub, London. Terrorists may follow similar be- from accidents and disasters. Such a management-based havior with respect to a bioterrorist attack by finding a weak regulatory strategy shifts the focus of decision making from link in the system that could have severe direct and indirect the regulator to individual units that are now required to do consequences to a much wider population.
The behavior of terrorists is also affected by what their The combination of third-party inspections in conjunction adversaries will do. More specifically, terrorists may respond with private insurance is a powerful combination of two to security measures by shifting their attention to more vul- market mechanisms that can convince many units of the nerable targets.
Keohane and Zeckhauser , Sandler advantages of implementing security measures to make their , and Bier et al. As a result of these units taking ac- between the actions of potential victims and the behavior of tion, the remaining ones can be encouraged to comply with terrorists.
Symmetrically, rather than investing in additional the regulations to avoid being caught and fined. This is a form security measures, firms may prefer to move their opera- of tipping behavior noted in Appendix H.
In other words, tions from large cities to less populated areas to reduce the without some type of inspection, low-risk units that have likelihood of an attack. Of course, terrorists may then choose adopted risk-reducing measures cannot credibly distinguish these less protected regions as targets if there is heightened themselves from the high-risk ones.
Terrorists also may change the With the delegation of part of the inspection process to nature of their attacks if there are protective measures in the private sector through insurance companies and certified place that would make the probability of success of the origi- third-party inspectors, a channel would exist through which nal option much lower than another course of action e.
If a unit chose switching from hijacking to bombing a plane. The impact of not to be inspected by certified third parties, it would more endogenous probabilities on the nature of the game-theoretic likely be perceived as high-risk rather than low-risk.
If a unit equilibrium is discussed more fully in Appendix H and in did get inspected and received a seal of approval that it was Heal and Kunreuther In this way, the number of audits Risk Management Strategies needed would be reduced because units that had received The three models considered here all treat adversaries as seals of approval from private third-party inspectors would intelligent adversaries that seek to maximize their objectives.
Some of the implications are that distributed networks of As observed in the safety arena with the National Trans- protection, across different agencies or airlines or firms, may portation Safety Board and the U.
Chemical Safety and not lead to solutions that are as good as can be obtained with Hazard Investigation Board and in the security arena with leadership and central direction. Investigations examine the root and contributing causes, from terrorism due to the possibility of contamination from including the sufficiency of policies, practices, and oversight weak links in the system, there may be a role for the private in the private and public domains.
Such future investigations and public sectors to play in addressing this problem. Each of these attack adversary modeling improvements recommended in this alternatives has different attack signatures, detection tech- report can be applied. Risk management strategies to protect nologies, and mitigation options.
While biological agents the U. Models for anticipating the actions biological agents. For nonbiological agents, the defense of of intelligent adversaries and for optimizing the allocation particular locations or facilities against attack and the prepa- of defensive resources can be extended across these areas ration of mitigation resources should such an attack occur because all involve similar problems of warning, response, assume a more important role than in the case of biological and recovery, and the consequences can be measured in attack, in which the biological agent used is a primary con- the same consequence units, for example, fatalities.
The sideration. In principle, the committee believes that the most models suggested here can be applied using risk assessment simple, meaningful, and useful way to compare biological methods developed specifically for radioactive and chemi- agents e.
Probabilities and consequences in the hypothetical radioactive threats e. Risk sessment results that it believes make the BTRA of management options can then be compared by comparing problematic even for assessing biological agents, let alone probability and consequence reduction in each of the three other classes of threats. Many rankings produced by the BTRA of are likely to be risk management alternatives e.
In other cases, these deficiencies. In its current form, the BTRA should reducing the threat of weapons of mass destruction.
Oliveros, and L. Although these two Golany, B. Kaplan, A. Marmur, and U. In press. John G. Voeller pendent Security in an Uncertain World. Richardson, P.
Gordon, and J. Northampton, Mass. Available at www. Keohane, N. Accessed October 23, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 26 Sandler, T. Terrorism and the Chemical Infra- World Economy 26 6 Washington, The White House. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 10 D. Parnell, G. Accessed January 16, Homeland security strategic planning is Ensure a safe and secure Washington State for the 21st Century Strategic Theme: Areas we must excel at in order to accomplish our mission. CISR Risk Available online: : 2.
Results of an electronic search of the email system Hiring Freeze Presidential Memorandum January 23 Lastly, 54 are within the offices under the Office of the Chief of Staff. Wikipedia Handbook of Computer Security and Digital Working Capital Fund. Biometrics And their Relation to Identity